Two hundred thousand years later, around 10,000 B.C., this began to change. A genetic mutation appeared, somewhere near modern-day Turkey, that jammed the lactase-production gene permanently in the “on” position. The original mutant was probably a male who passed the gene on to his children. People carrying the mutation could drink milk their entire lives. Genomic analyses have shown that within a few thousand years, at a rate that evolutionary biologists had thought impossibly rapid, this mutation spread throughout Eurasia, to Great Britain, Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, India and all points in between, stopping only at the Himalayas. Independently, other mutations for lactose tolerance arose in Africa and the Middle East, though not in the Americas, Australia, or the Far East.
In an evolutionary eye-blink, 80 percent of Europeans became milk-drinkers; in some populations, the proportion is close to 100 percent. (Though globally, lactose intolerance is the norm; around two-thirds of humans cannot drink milk in adulthood.) The speed of this transformation is one of the weirder mysteries in the story of human evolution, more so because it’s not clear why anybody needed the mutation to begin with.
HAHA LACTOSE-INTOLERANT PEOPLE ARE UNMUTATED, UNMUTATED!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
To be fair, nearly all variations among species are due to mutations, so without mutations, we’d all still be single cell organisms, dividing to reproduce and not “getting it on” in any way shape or from.(via aquarkydude)
Emilie Holmes is a tea drinker, but she’s noticed a change in her local London culture.
People are drinking more and more coffee, and missing out on all the subtle flavor, warmth, and tradition inside a simple cup of freshly-brewed darjeeling. To solve the problem, and to remind people what they’ve been missing, she’s secured a vintage truck and plans to take to the streets of her city, steeping cups wherever tea time takes her. She calls her project Good & Proper, because each cup is carefully brewed at specific temperatures, with whole leaves, and served with a smile.
We’re serving it up, pipin’ hot, as our Project of the Day.
This morning I made apple spice pancakes and later I’m going hiking with the ‘rents, the boyfriend, and the dog. I say it should be a good day.
Also here’s my top secret pancake recipe because I care about all of you and want you to be happy.
(bonus, they’re vegan!)
- 2 c. Flour
This paper examines the inefficiencies in the U.S. food system from the farm to the fork to the landfill.
By identifying food losses at every level of the food supply chain, this report provides the latest recommendations and examples of emerging solutions, such as making “baby carrots” out of carrots too bent (or “curvy”) to meet retail standards.
By increasing the efficiency of our food system, we can make better use of our natural resources, provide financial saving opportunities along the entire supply chain, and enhance our ability to meet food demand.
Via KERA’s Think.
One of my favourite snacks! Except, I sprinkle raisins inside the tortilla before wrapping the banana!